623 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

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Focus on childhood diabetes: covers epidemiology, complications, treatment guidelines, EBP approaches to intervention (patient/family education, healthy eating, exercise). Discusses 3 current research articles in depth. Includes case studies.

Available Course Credits

Alaska State PT & OT Board 9.00
AOTA 9.00
Arizona State Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Arkansas State Board of Physcial Thearpy 9.00
California Physical Therapy Board 9.00
Colorado Division of Professions and Occupations 9.00
Delaware Examining Board of Physical Therapists and Athletic Trainers 9.00
District Of Columbia Department of Health 9.00
FPTA 9.00
Georgia State Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Hawaii Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Idaho Physical Therapy Licensure Board 9.00
Illinois Department of Professional Regulation 9.00
Indiana Physical Therapy Board 9.00
Iowa Board of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy 9.00
Kansas State Board of Healing Arts 9.00
Kentucky Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Louisiana Physical Therapy Board 9.00
Maine Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Maryland Board of Physical Therapy 0.90
Massachusetts Board of Allied Health Professionals 9.00
Michigan Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Minnesota Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Mississippi State Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Missouri Advisory Commission for Physical Therapists 9.00
Montana Board of Physical Therapy Examiners 9.00
New Mexico Physical Therapy Board 9.00
New York State Education Department 9.00
North Carolina Board of Physical Therapy Examiners 9.00
North Dakota Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Oklahoma Physical Therapy Board 9.00
Oregon Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Pennsylvania State Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Physical Therapy Governing Board New Hampshire 9.00
South Carolina Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
South Dakota Physical Therapy License Board 9.00
State of Alabama Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
State of Rhode Island Department of Health 9.00
Tennessee Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Texas Physical Therapy Association 9.00
Utah Physical Therapy Licensing Board 9.00
Virginia Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Washington State Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
West Virginia Board of Physical Therapy 9.00
Wisconsin Physical Therapy License Board 9.00
Wyoming Board of Physical Therapy 9.00

Course Content

623 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents
Course Evaluation

Sarah R.Stillings, MA, PT, MPT, CHT

Sarah R. (Sally) Stillings is a PT and Certified Hand Therapist in Texas. She received her physical therapy degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Prior to becoming a therapist, Sally taught university-level writing courses and was assistant editor of The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice. In her extensive career as a PT, she has held a variety of clinical, teaching, administrative, and business roles, including general PT practitioner, upper extremity specialist, clinic manager, hand therapy clinic coordinator, continuing education (CE) instructor, and CE course administrator. She has also served as Executive Director of the Kellermann Foundation, a U.S. nonprofit organization supporting healthcare and community development in Uganda, East Africa. Her work now focuses on creating evidence-based CE materials for rehab professionals. Sally is a lifelong runner who celebrates all those who cover the ground.

623 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents—Course Objectives
After successfully completing this continuing education course, the learner should be able to:
1. Define diabetes mellitus, list its classification types, and identify its diagnostic criteria in
pediatric practice
2. Recall the prevalence of diabetes and of obesity among children and adolescents in the
United States
3. Identify signs, symptoms, and complications associated with pediatric diabetes
4. Identify current standards of medical treatment for these disorders among children
and adolescents
5. Recognize principles and philosophies of diabetes education
6. List important topics in family/patient education for young people with diabetes
7. List the benefits of exercise in children, and recognize the potential risks associated with
exercise for children and adolescents with diabetes
8. Recognize how to choose appropriate, safe exercise interventions for this patient
9. Define evidence-based practice and recognize its parameters
10. Recall the “take-away” message for PT/OT practice of each of the three research
articles presented.
11. Using case studies, apply the specific concepts and principles presented in the course
for diabetes care in children and adolescents.


623 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents—Table of Contents

Course Instructions 2
About the Author, Course Description 3
Course Objectives 4
Table of Contents 5
Introduction 7
Chapter 1: Understanding Pediatric Diabetes 10
Classifications 12
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 15

Prediabetes 16
Monogenic Diabetes 18
Other Types of Pediatric Diabetes 19
Epidemiology 22
Type 1 Diabetes Incidence and Prevalence
Type 2 Diabetes Incidence and Prevalence 25
Overweight/Obesity in Childhood 28

Acute Complications of Diabetes 31
Diabetic Ketoacidosis 32
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State 33
Hypoglycemia 34
Chronic Complications of Diabetes 35
Other Associated Conditions 37
Medical Treatment of Pediatric Diabetes 38
Chapter 2: The Role of PT and OT Professionals 41
Age-Appropriate Type-Based Intervention 42

Patient and Family Education 45
Principles and Philosophy of Diabetes Education 47
Who Is Responsible for Diabetes Education? 48
General Topics in Diabetes Education 49
Supplemental Reading 50
Diabetes Education: Type 1 51
Supplemental Reading 52
Diabetes Education: Type 2 53

Supplemental Reading 56
Healthy Eating and Dietary Management

Supplemental Reading 58
Nutrition Advice for Type 1 Diabetes

Nutrition Advice for Type 2 Diabetes59
Other Dietary Management Considerations 61
Supplemental Reading 62
Exercise and Physical Activity 63
Benefits of Exercise 64
Risks with Exercise 66
Supplemental Reading 67
Prescribing Exercise 68
Chapter 3: Examining the Evidence 72
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)
What is EBP?

Why Is EBP Important? 74
What Is “Best Evidence”? 75
Where Can You Find Articles? 77
Presentation of Articles 78
Eva et al., Self-care and self-management... 79
Wu et al., Cardiovasc. health benefits of exercise... 85

Wu et al. (cont.) 87
Chetty et al., Exercise mgmt. for young people... 91
Chapter 4: Case Studies 99

Type 1 Diabetes: Case Study #1 100
Type 2 Diabetes: Case Study #2 103
Case Study Series: Patient/Family Education 107

Conclusion 115
References 116
Examination 124
Evaluation 133

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